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Susan Adamowicz at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge in Maine. Credit: USFWS

One Salt Marsh at a Time: Building Coastal Resiliency After Hurricane Sandy


Dr. Susan Adamowicz is standing on a salt marsh along the shores of the Webhannet River at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge in Maine. This refuge is practically her home, where she has worked for the past 13 years as a land management and research demonstration biologist for the Service.

Coastal marshes are a habitat she has known and loved since she was a child. But today, salt marshes are facing new and unprecedented threats from climate change. We asked her to talk to us about the important role salt marshes play in protecting coastlines and building coastal resiliency.

Q: What are salt marshes and what makes them important?

Susan: Salt marshes are exciting places to work! They are dynamic areas. Salt marshes form where rivers meet the sea and where the velocity of water is slow enough to allow the sediment to deposit and for plants to take root. Over time, as salt marshes continue to grow, they rise in elevation and expand outward horizontally.

They support a wide variety of wildlife that’s specialized to live in this salty, tidal environment, everything from micro biota to birds such as the saltmarsh sparrow to numerous species of mammals and fish. They also provide environmental services, such as storing carbon, filtering water and providing natural defenses against storms by buffering the force of both storm surges and storm waves.

Q: Let’s talk about storms—how did Hurricane Sandy change the way we think about protecting coastal communities?

Susan: The coast was forever changed, as was our perception of what it means to live along the coast. We saw the tremendously destructive force of what nature can do, but we also saw how this force can be lessened by having salt marshes in place to protect our shores.

After Hurricane Sandy, I think many of us woke up to the challenge of having to think about our coastal systems in new ways. How might we redesign our coasts so that in some areas we could restore the natural systems, like salt marshes, that can provide more natural flexibility and protection from storm surge, big storm waves or even additional rainfall?

Q: How do we prepare for future storms and sea-level rise and stay resilient?

Susan: Salt marshes play a vital role in the resiliency of coastal systems. Imagine if this salt marsh was not here. There would be no buffer from the turbulence of storms. And because healthy salt marshes can grow higher in elevation, they can provide a continuing protection to human communities if sea levels don’t rise too high too quickly. By being able to handle the force of storms and recover quickly, we say that salt marshes are resilient and they pass this protection on to surrounding human communities.

We’re also using all kinds of new techniques to restore coastal marshes and improve resiliency. Thin-layer deposition is one example. It uses clean dredge sediments to build up the marsh surface elevation to a height that’s optimal for the salt marsh grasses to continue to build the marsh on their own over time. We have several thin-layer deposition projects on national wildlife refuges as a result of Hurricane Sandy funds [for example, at John Chafee National Wildlife Refuge in Rhode Island and Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey].


Susan Adamowicz shows interns how to take salt marsh elevation samples. Credit: USFWS

Q: You’ve worked in coastal marshes for a long time—how has your work changed and what do you see for the future?

Susan: A lot has changed. We no longer talk about restoring a salt marsh to the configuration it had in the 1600s. Now we talk about restoring the trajectories of salt marsh-building forces so that a salt marsh can sustain itself and have a high degree of integrity over time.

With super storms, climate change and their effects, we’re seeing unprecedented forces placed on the coast.

It’s like Godzilla is walking all over our picnic and we are trying to figure out how best to prepare ourselves, how best to respond to this climate change Godzilla. I may be exaggerating a little bit, but maybe only a little bit because it has been such a challenge to us.

Some of the models predict that our coastlines are going to be entirely changed by sea-level rise in the next 100 years and I worry a great deal about the kind of planet that my nieces and nephews and their children will inherit.

I take hope in realizing it is not just me alone, but within the family of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and my family of other professional scientists, there are a lot of us that are concerned about the same thing. We want to pass on a healthy planet to future generations. If we can bring these salt marshes 50-75 years into the future, I think we will have done a service for the next generation of scientists, wildlife lovers and folks that live on the coast, a service that they can then build on.

Reprinted from Fish and Wildlife News, Fall 2016, p. 18-19

Susan Adamowicz at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge in Maine. Credit: USFWS

Susan Adamowicz along the Webhannet River at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge in Maine. Credit: USFWS

Meet Marcia Pradines, Chesapeake Marshlands NWR Complex manager

Marcia is the project leader at the Chesapeake Marshlands National Wildlife Refuge Complex in Maryland.  Marcia brings a wealth of knowledge from her diverse experiences with us and other conservation agencies. Learn more about Marcia and her goals for managing the refuges that comprise the Complex: Blackwater, Eastern Neck, Glenn L. Martin and Susquehanna National Wildlife Refuges.


What is your professional background and experience with the Service?

I joined the FWS Division of Migratory Bird Management in DC where I oversaw our national efforts to partner for bird conservation and was later Deputy Division Chief.  I then became the Division Chief for Visitor Services and Communications for the refuge system for over four years.  Working on “the people side of things” with all the Regions and refuges has been very rewarding.

What are some of your goals as a new project leader for the Chesapeake Marshlands NWR Complex?

 Our biggest threats include sea level rise and invasive species.  An important goal is dealing with marsh loss, and focusing our land protection within the Nanticoke Division and future areas for marsh migration.  Other goals include continuing to manage for migrating and overwintering waterfowl, as well as beginning to monitor and manage for the Northern long-eared bat after discovering the first ever on the Eastern Shore of Maryland a month ago.

We had over 200,000 visitors to the Complex last year, and this will grow with the opening next March of the new Harriett Tubman National Park and State Park adjacent to us. The landscape that shaped Harriett Tubman is intact today thanks to Blackwater NWR. We will also focus on opportunities to engage both new and regular visitors including hunting, birding, paddling and wildlife viewing, to name a few.

How is Chesapeake Marshlands preparing for the dramatic loss of wetlands due to sea level rise and the degradation of marshlands due to the nutria population? 

Blackwater NWR has lost over 5,000 acres of marsh since established in 1933.  Our approach is facilitating adaptation and resiliency through partnerships.  We partnered with APHIS Wildlife Services to eradicate the invasive nutria, with great success.  We also partnered with The Conservation Fund and Audubon Maryland-DC to develop a comprehensive sea level rise adaptation plan.  We are facilitating marsh migration into what is now upland habitat through controlling phragmites and focusing our land protection efforts where future wetlands will be.  We are also building resiliency into our marshes through living shorelines, restorations, and marsh thin-layering.


Marcia Pradines with FWS Northeast Region’s Rick Bennett, senior scientist, and Scott Kahan, Regional Refuge Chief as Miles Simmons, biological technician, ably gets the team to Martin National Willdife Refuge on Smith Island to view living shoreline readiness for future sea level and storm surges. Photo credit: USFWS

What do you believe is your greatest accomplishment with the FWS?  

 A highlight was spearheading the Urban Wildlife Conservation Program with the “Conserving the Future” vision team.  The primary goal is to engage new audiences in conservation. The Service’s mission ends with “for the continuing benefit of the American people.”  If people enjoy and care about wildlife, and realize how it benefits them, they will support conservation. This is a common goal now shared by the States, NGOs, and other countries.

Marcia would like you all to know more about these resources:

Planning for marsh migration at the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

Blackwater 2100: A strategy for salt marsh persistence in an era of climate change, 2013

Chesapeake Marshlands National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprehensive conservation plan (2006) [Editor: ten year old document still a vital road map forward]

Wednesday Wisdom – Happy Birthday, Rachel

rachel carson birthday

Posting our #WednesdayWisdom on this Friday, May 27, so we can say, “Happy Birthday, Rachel Carson!” May 27, 2016 marks the 109th anniversary of the birth of Rachel Carson, one of the world’s foremost leaders in conservation and former U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service employee. Her work as an educator, scientist and writer revolutionized America’s interest in environmental issues. Whether it was her passion for the oceans and coasts, her inspiration as one of the first female scientists and government leaders, or her overall footprint on the history of conservation, her legacy is certainly one to be honored and celebrated.

The Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge , headquartered in Wells, Maine, protects various kinds of habitat, including barrier beach, tidal estuary, dune, salt marsh and rocky coastline.  The piping plover, an endangered species, nests on refuge land.  The refuge was established in 1966 and was first known as the Coastal Maine National Wildlife Refuge, was renamed in honor of Rachel Carson in 1968, five years after her passing.

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